Humankind’s survival is dependent on water. Unfortunately, water also provides the primary route for disease-carrying bacteria and poisons (heavy metals, pesticides, industrial waste) to enter the human body. These contaminants can result from natural causes or be the result of human contamination of the environment.
Disease carrying bacteria can result from unsanitary conditions. For metals, human involvement effects their movement from their natural place in the environment and eventual entrance into the water supply. The use of pesticides and improper disposal of industrial wastes are another area of concern.
Over the years, industrialized societies, have built water purification facilities for populous areas. Initially these included a settling pond, sand filtration, and chemical treatment. However, in recent years, new and usually complimentary methods have developed not only for large-scale water treatment but also for the home.
The array of water treatment methods, written and talked about as one technology after another bursts into the limelight promising purer and safer water, makes it difficult for the consumers to make a choice. Your choice of purifier should depend on water quality, your budget, supply of running water, and electricity. Eureka-Forbes has an Aquaguard purification system for every need.
Water purifiers address several conditions:
- Biological Contamination: Water contaminated by disease carrying organisms like bacteria, viruses, and cysts.
- Chemical Contamination: This category includes heavy metals like lead and arsenic, pesticides, and organic chemicals such as halocarbons, hydrocarbons, and wastes from chemical manufacturing.
- Brackish Water: Brackish water results from higher-than-normal levels of TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) in the water supply.
- Excessive Turbidity and Colour: High concentrations of suspended solids, colloids, dissolved minerals, and organics are usually the root of this problem.
Boiling water kills organisms and often causes the agglomeration of suspended particulates or scaling that allows for simple decanting. However, the water cannot be stored for any period.
Fortunately, many treatments have developed to address these problems and eliminate the need for boiling. The first two processes are pre-filters necessary before newer technologies can be employed.
- Particulate Filtration: Filtration performed to remove visible solids (dirt, rust, silt, and more).
- Ultra Filtration (UF): UF usually employs a 5-micron filter to remove very small, invisible solids such as colloids.
- Adsorption Filtration: Generally, an activated carbon filter (5-micron particles to provide a large surface area) removes trace organics (pesticides, halocarbons, and carcinogens), colour, and smell. These filters will not release the contaminant and do not require a backwash.
Other types of adsorption filters can be included for specific removal of particular contaminants such as arsenic, iron, calcium, and other ions but these generally require a backwash for regeneration.
- Ultraviolet (UV) Treatment: Often UV is involved as an alternative to reverse osmosis, but the pre-filtrations to remove solids and colour re necessary to make the UV treatment efficient. Ultraviolet light is very effective at inactivating bacteria and cysts.
- Reverse Osmosis (RO): RO, most commonly known for its use in desalination and purification of seawater, employs a semi-permeable membrane through which water, under pressure, is forced. The membrane is impermeable to ions such as sodium, lead, arsenic, chromium, and copper. In addition, the membrane is impermeable to large molecules, bacteria, viruses, and cysts.
RO is necessary to reduce high TDS levels. However, a quarter of the water used is purified while the rest is wasted during flushing. RO should be avoided when TDS levels are low (500 mg/L or less) to prevent the loss of minerals that are vital to the human body. Compared to UV water purification, the reverse osmosis process is slow. Unless TDS levels are high, RO is a costly, slow, and possibly a detrimental purification method.
Choosing a Water Purifier for Your Home
Eureka-Forbes Ltd., a leader in water purification in India, has a range of solutions to address any kind of water problem with their Aquaguard series of water purifiers. Eureka-Forbes specialists in water purification can advise you or you can review their models and make your own decision.
Aquaguard has a purification system that matches your water quality and budget. Methods include particulate filtration and UF, UV treatment, RO, and adsorption methods.
Focused ultraviolet rays in a UV chamber provide “e-boiling” that is equivalent to the safety obtained by boiling water for 20 minutes. Performed after pre-filtering, including UF, to remove suspended particulate matter like dust and rust and/or colour if needed, e-boiling prevents all known disease caused by bacteria, viruses, and cysts.
If the TDS count is high, state of the art RO systems can eliminate the necessity of UV treatment. Finally, various specialized adsorption filters are available for removal of organics, metals, and the causes of hard water.
A partial listing of Aquaguard models, ranging in price from about (INR) 7000 to (INR) 18,000, includes:
- Aquaguard Classic and Aquaguard Compact: These models feature water purification using UV treatment (e-boiling) and provide a flow rate of one litre/min.
- Aquaguard Total INFINITI: This unit uses advanced “Intell e-boiling+” technology (duo-boiling technology) that UV purifies the water twice and further uses Nano Silver Activated Carbon Block to inhibit bacterial growth and remove lead and pesticides.
- Aquaguard Reviva: Reviva is intended for regions with hard water uses RO and active silver in a six-stage filtering system. For RO, a booster pump drives the water through the membrane. Flow rate is eight litres/hr.
- Aquaguard Total SENSA: The Total SENSA, using Eureka- Forbes patented Blu-G technology, determines the quality of the water to be purified and auto-selects UV or RO purification as appropriate. Either method chosen is combined within a six-filter technology.
- Aquaguard Booster: This model derives its name from its design with a built in pump to draw water for areas with no running water or plagued by low water pressure. It also is equipped with e-boiling+ (50-watt UV light).
- Aquaguard Total RO: Total RO includes NF (Argentum Nanofresh Technology) and intelligent Auto Flush.
- Aquaguard Total RO PROTEC+: RO protect+ is the newest generation of RO water purification systems. New 3G technology electronically extends RO membrane life. To compensate for the slowness of RO, this model provides 10 litres of storage capacity and has a detachable cover for cleaning with a special cleansing solution.